1. L. Grinspoon and J. Bakalar. 1997. Marihuana the Forbidden Medicine (second edition). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; B. Zimmerman et al. 1998. Is Marijuana the Right Medicine for You? A Factual Guide to Medical Uses of Marijuana. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing.
2. T. Mikuriya. (Ed.) 1973. Marijuana: Medical Papers 1839-1972. Oakland: Medi-Comp Press.
3. AMA (American Medical Association) Legislative Counsel William C. Woodword told Congress on July 12, 1937: "The obvious purpose of and effect of this bill is to impose so many restrictions on the medicinal use [of cannabis] as to prevent such use altogether. ... It may serve to deprive the public of the benefits of a drug that on further research may prove to be of substantial benefit."
4. Several books explore this issue in further detail. These include: A. Mack and J. Joy. 2001. Marijuana as Medicine: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; L. Iverson. 2000. The Science of Marijuana. New York: Oxford University Press; B. Zimmerman et al. 1998. Is Marijuana the Right Medicine for You?; C. Conrad. 1997. Hemp for Health: The Medicinal and Nutritional Uses of Cannabis Sativa. Rochester VT: Healing Arts Press; L. Grinspoon and J. Bakalar J. 1997. Marihuana the Forbidden Medicine; E. Rosenthal et al. 1997. Marijuana Medical Handbook. Oakland: Quick American Archives; and R. Mechoulam. (Ed.) 1986. Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
5. NSW (New South Wales) Working Party on the Use of Cannabis for Medicinal Purposes. 2000. Report of the Working Party on the Use of Cannabis for Medical Purposes. Sydney: Parliament House; J. Joy et al. 1999. Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology. 1998. Ninth Report. Cannabis: The Scientific and Medical Evidence. London: The Stationary Office; J. Morgan and L. Zimmer. 1997. Marijuana Myths, Marijuana Facts: A Review of the Scientific Evidence. New York: Lindesmith Center; Grinspoon and Bakalar. 1997. Marihuana the Forbidden Medicine.
6. Joy et al. 1999. Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base.
7. I. Galve-Roperph et al. 2000. Antitumoral action of cannabinoids: involvement of sustained ceramide accumulation of ERK activation. Nature Medicine 6: 313-319.
8. M. Van der Stelt et al. 2001. Neuroprotection by delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active compound in marijuana, against ouabain-induced in vivo excitotoxicity. The Journal of Neuroscience 21: 6475-6479; J. Joy et al. 1999. Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base.
9. APHA (American Public Health Association) Resolution 9513: "Access to Therapeutic Marijuana/Cannabis," adopted November 1995 states in part, "[The APHA] encourages research of the therapeutic properties of various cannabinoids and combinations of cannabinoids, and ... urges the Administration and Congress to move expeditiously to make cannabis available as a legal medicine."
10. Health Canada legalized the possession and cultivation of medical marijuana on July 31, 2001.
11. The FAS' (Federation of American Scientists) position on medical marijuana, adopted November 1994, states in part: "Based on much evidence, from patients and doctors alike, on the superior effectiveness and safety of whole cannabis compared to other medications, ... the President should instruct the NIH and the Food and Drug Administration to make efforts to enroll seriously ill patients whose physicians believe that whole cannabis would be helpful to their conditions in clinical trials, both to allow data-gathering and to provide an alternative to the black market while the scientific questions about the possible utility of cannabis are resolved."
12. In a July 24, 1997 letter to California Senator John Vasconcellos, American Cancer Society Legislative Advocate Theresa Renken wrote: "[California Senate Bill] 535 focuses on medical marijuana research. [The] American Cancer Society ... Supports S.B. 535 because it is consistent with our long-held position of supporting research of any agent or technique for which there may be evidence of a therapeutic advantage."
13. AMA (American Medical Association) Council on Scientific Affairs 1997 Report #10: Medical Marijuana contains the following statements supporting a physician's right to freely discuss marijuana therapy with a patient, and favoring further research into medical marijuana's therapeutic potential: "The AMA recommend that adequate and well-controlled studies of smoked marijuana be conducted in patients who have serious conditions for which preclinical, anecdotal or controlled evidence suggests possible efficacy, including AIDS wasting syndrome, severe acute or delayed emesis induced by chemotherapy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, dystonia and neuropathic pain."
14. R. Doblin and M. Kleiman. 1991. Marijuana as anti-emetic medicine: a survey of oncologists attitudes and experiences. Journal of Clinical Oncology 9: 1275-1280.
15. Reuters News Wire. April 23, 2001. "Physicians divided on medical marijuana."
16. "Cannabis and its derivatives have shown promise in a varieties of disorders. The evidence is most impressive in glaucoma, ... asthma, ... and in [combating] the nausea and vomiting of cancer chemotherapy. ... Smaller trials have suggested cannabis might also be useful in seizures, spasticity, and other nervous system disorders." Conclusion of the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine. 1982. Marijuana and Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
17. "First, there is good evidence that THC is an effective anti-emetic agent for patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. ... Second, there is reasonable evidence for the potential efficacy of THC and marijuana in the treatment of glaucoma, especially in cases which have proved resistant to existing anti-glaucoma agents. Further research is ... required, but this should not prevent its use under medical supervision. ... Third, there is sufficient suggestive evidence of the potential usefulness of various cannabinoids as analgesic, anti- asthmatic, anti-spasmodic, and anti-convulsant agents." W. Hall et al. 1994. The health and psychological consequences of cannabis use: Monograph prepared for the National Task for on Cannabis. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
18. "Marijuana looks promising enough to recommend that there be new controlled studies done. The indications in which varying levels of interest was expressed are the following: appetite stimulation/cachexia, nausea and vomiting following anti-cancer therapy, neurological and movement disorders, analgesia [and] glaucoma." Conclusions of the National Institutes of Health. 1997. Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana: Report to the Director. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health.
19. House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology. 1998. Ninth Report: Cannabis: the Scientific and Medical Evidence. London: The Stationary Office.
20. "Lords Say, Legalise Cannabis for Medical Use." 1998. Press Release. House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology Press Office.
21."We are concerned that the MCA [Medicines Control Agency] approach to the licensing of cannabis-based medicines ... place the requirements of safety and the needs of patients in an unacceptable balance. ... Patients with severe conditions such as multiple sclerosis are being denied the right to make informed choices about their medication. There is always some risk in taking any medication, ... but these concerns should not prevent them from having access to what promises to be the only effective medication available to them." Conclusion of the British House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology. 2001. Second Report: Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. London: The Stationary Office.
22. J. Joy et al. 1999. Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base.
23. In the Matter of Marihuana Rescheduling Petition, Docket 86-22, Opinion, Recommended Ruling, Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law, and Decision of Administrative Law Judge, September 6, 1988. Washington, DC: Drug Enforcement Administration.
24. Seventy-three percent of respondents supported allowing doctors "to prescribe marijuana." Sample size: 1,513.
25. Seventy-three percent of respondents said they "would vote for making marijuana legally available for doctors to prescribe." Sample size: 1,018. Released March 1999.